• Anželika Ivanova
  • Petar Krstevski
  • Aleksandra Krkoleva-Mateska


A b s t r a c t: One of the very important aspects of power system development is improving the stability of the
system, which can be disrupted from the high penetration of renewable energy sources. This increases the need for
frequency support (FS) services. An improvement of the current services for FS and procurement methods for these
services is already being implemented in European countries. The aim of this research is to assess the current conditi-
ons of FS markets in Continental Europe and Macedonia and to underline the main steps that should be taken for the
improvement of FS services and procurement methods in Macedonia. Furthermore, it highlights the challenges for FS
market development.

Key words: frequency support services; reserves; procurement methods; electricity market

 [1] ENTSO-E, Network Code on Load Frequency Control and Reserves (LFCR), 2013.
 [2] ENTSO-E, “Cross Border Electricity Balancing Pilot Projects,” 2016. [Online]. Available: major-projects/network-code-implementation/cross-borde r-electricity-balancing-pilot-projects/Pages/default.aspx.
 [3] D. Bajs and M. Atanasovski, Студија за проценка на вкупните трошоци за интегрирање на ОИЕ во ЕЕС на Македонија (Study for estimating expenses from integration of RES in the power system in Macedonia), 2017.
 [4] Continental Europe Operation Handbook, [Online]. Avai­lable: s-reports/operation-handbook/Pages/default.aspx.
 [5] System Operation Agreement, ENTSO-E, 2006.
 [6] ENTSO-E, System Operation Guideline, 2016.
 [7] H. Holttinen, A. Ivanova and J. L. Dominguez-Garcia, “Wind Power in Markets for Frequency Support Services”, In: 13th International Conference on European Energy Markets (EEM16), Porto, Portugal, 2016.
 [8] Primary Control Reserve in the Netherlands, [Online].  Ava­ilable:;js e ssionid=64D23796F78940C6F6382A06D5B7188D.
 [9] Primary Control Reserve, [Online]. Available: https://
[10] Elia System Operator, Regles de functionnement du marche relatif a la compensation des desequilibres quart-haraires – Entre en vigueur partiellement en 2015 et intér­alement a partir du 1er Janvier 2016,” [Online]. Available:
[11] Implementation Guide, 2012. [Online]. Available: http:/ / clean_tcm43-19026.pdf.
[12] The Secondary Reserve: A Solution to Restore Balance and Frequency, [Online]. Available: ~/media/files/Elia/Products-and-services/ProductSheets/S - Ondersteuning-net/S2_F_RES_SECOND.pdf.
[13] Secondary control reserve, [Online]. Available: https://
[14] H. Holttinen, J. Kiviluoma, N. Cutululis, A. Gubina, A. Keane and F. Van Hulle, “D2.2, REserviceS, Ancillary Services,” 2012.
[15] Rules on Balancing – Portugal, [Online]. Available: https: // anc ing/.
[16] Tertiary Production Reserve: A Solution to Major Imbalances and Congestion, [Online]. Available: http://www. eets/S-Ondersteuning-net/S3_F_RES_TERT_PROD.pdf.
[17] Minute reserve, [Online]. Available: https://www.regellei
[18] I. d. l. Fuente, Ancillary Services in Spain: Dealing with High Penetration of RES.
[19] Cross Border Electricity Balancing Pilot Projects, [On line]. Available: ork%20codes%20documents/Implementation/Pilot_Projects /pilot_projects_map.png.
[20] MEPSO, Мрежни правила (Network Code), 2015.

Jul 5, 2017
How to Cite
IVANOVA, Anželika; KRSTEVSKI, Petar; KRKOLEVA-MATESKA, Aleksandra. ASSESSMENT OF FREQUENCY SUPPORT SERVICES AND PROCUREMENT METHODS IN CONTINENTAL EUROPE AND REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA. Journal of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies - JEEIT, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 1, p. 25-31, july 2017. ISSN 2545-4269. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 19 sep. 2017.